Adj. infrared, laser, carbon-black

More recent results have shown that it is possible to take temperature measurements from welds made with infrared absorber when sensors of other wavelength ranges are used. (W 244) (1)

Infrared absorber = Absorvente de infra-vermelho


The laser welding process consists of three stages which can be merged into one process if the absorber material is incorporated in advance of welding: application of the laser absorber material system to the textile: the material system (given the name Clear-weld®) may be applied in the form of a low-viscosity liquid, which dries rapidly to leave a very thin deposit on the surface of the textile. It may also be deposited on the surface of an interleaving film that is compatible with the textiles to be joined. A third option is to incorporate the absorber in a compatible interleaving film or into the textile fibres. (W 222) (2)

Laser absorber = Absorvente de laser


Clear-weld ® is a novel development of the transmission laser welding process. A patent has been applied for by TWI. The carbon-black absorber commonly used is replaced by a colourless dye thus expanding the applicability of the technique to clear plastics. (W 383) (3)

Carbon-black absorber = Absorvente de negro-de-fumo


(1) Process monitoring methods in laser welding of plastics

Ian Jones and John Rudlin 

Paper presented at Joining Plastics 2006, London, National Physical Laboratory (NPL), 25-26 April 2006.


(2) Innovation in materials joining technologies

Authors: Sue Dunkerton 1 and Jon Simpson 2 

1 TWI Ltd., Granta Park, Gt Abington, Cambridge, CB1 6AL, UK

2 TWI Training & Certification (S.E.Asia) Sdn. Bhd., No 8 Jalan TSB 10, Sg. Buloh Industrial Park, 4700 Sg Buloh Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia

Paper presented at IMTCE 2006, 17-20 July 2006, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.


(3) Welding technologies for polymers and composites

A L Buxton 

Polymer Technology Group, TWI Ltd

Paper presented at the I Mech E seminar, ‘The Joining of Plastics and Polymer Composite Materials’, held on 24 October 2002 at TWI and published in The Joining of Plastics and Polymer Composite Materials.



Adj. energy, laser, plasma

The use of longitudinal aluminium extrusions with integral stiffeners is attractive for rail car design as the wavelength of buckling can be dictated by the spacing of stiffeners; hence energy absorption can be very high in such aluminium structures. (W 158) (1)

Energy absorption = Absorção de energia


The different absorber deposition methods led to different laser absorption and welding performance. (W 345) (2)

Laser absorption = Absorção de laser


Plasma absorption causing beam defocusing – although the plasma absorption is small when using an optimised control gas, the absorbed energy is enough to create a gradient of electron temperate and density, resulting in a gradient of refractive index in the plasma. (W 343) (3)

Plasma absorption = Absorção de plasma


(1) Friction stir weld integrity and its importance to the rolling stock industry

Blignault C1, Kallee S W1, Thomas W M1, Russell M J1

Author details

1Friction and Forge Processes Department, TWI, Ltd., UK.

Paper presented at Southern African Institute of Welding (SAIW) conference, Integrity of Welded Structures in the Energy, Processing and Transport Industries in Southern Africa, Gold Reef City, 28-29 May 2008.


(2) Laser welding of plastics – process selection software (601)

Ian Jones and Sam Rostami

Paper presented at ICALEO 2003 Conference, October 13-16, Jacksonville, Florida, USA.


(3) Laser-Vapour Interaction in High-Power cw Nd:YAG Laser WeldingJ Greses, P A Hilton, TWI, Granta Park, Great Abington, Cambridge, UK; C Y Barlow, Engineering Department, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK; W M Steen, Material Science Department, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK and Laser Group, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, L69 3GH, UKPaper 1607 presented at ICALEO 2003 Conference, 13-16 October 2003, Jacksonville, Florida, USA.



Adj. sizing, positional, dimensional

If the acceptance criteria depend on through-wall sizing (for lack of root penetration and incomplete fusion) then further qualification evidence is required to assess the statistical sizing accuracy of the techniques. (W 44) (1)

Sizing accuracy = Precisão de dimensionamento


The experimental data demonstrates that the path errors, achievable through externally controlled, robots are lower than the errors given by the traditional OLP approach. Further investigations demonstrated that the positional accuracy of a robot reaching a single point is good (less than 1mm for most places within the working envelope of the robot). However, if a robot program is created through the OLP approach to command the robot to follow a specific curve, the deviations from the ideal path are greater. The point accuracy is better than the curve-following accuracy. (W 6) (2)

Positional accuracy = Precisão posicional


The task facing Turbo Power Systems and Tharsus Engineering involved developing a fabrication procedure for a welded hanger that supports heavy electrical equipment. The structure, which measures a metre and a half long and half a metre wide, was being fabricated with 130 welds. But the dimensional accuracy of the structure was critical. The fit-up tolerances were tight, between a millimetre and two millimetres between key dimensions. During fabrication however, welding caused distortion well beyond the acceptable tolerances, up to six millimetres along the length of the hanger. (W 462) (3)

Dimensional accuracy = Precisão dimensional


(1) Evaluation of ultrasonic phased array and laser optical techniques for inspection of the root and hot pass in girth welds

Channa Nageswaran and Ana?s Bourgeon 

TWI Ltd, Granta Park, Great Abington, Cambridge, CB21 6AL, UK

Richard Gooch 

OMS, Twyford Business Centre, London Road, Bishops Stortford, CM23 3YT, UK

Paper presented at INSIGHT 2012.


(2) Robotic path planning for non-destructive testing through RoboNDT

Carmelo Mineo, Jonathan Riise and S Gareth Pierce 

University of Strathclyde, Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering Glasgow, G1 1XW, UK 

P Ian Nicholson and Ian Cooper 

TWI Technology Centre (Wales) Port Talbot, SA13 1SB, UK 

Paper presented at NDT 2015. The 54th annual conference of the British Institute of Non-Destructive Testing. 8-10 Sept. 2015, Telford, UK.


(3) Shielding gases for arc welding and cutting

Formatting Instructions:

Name and Name 

TWI Ltd, Granta Park Great Abington, Cambridge, CB21 6AL, UK.

W Lucas

W Lucas

Originally published in Welding & Metal Fabrication, 2001, Vol. 69, No. 4, May, pp 16-18 by DMG World Media UK Ltd, – www.dmgworldmedia.com/



Adj. heat-treatable, wrought, titanium

Evolution of microstructure in the heat affected zone is thermally controlled, and this will be discussed separately for non-heat-treatable and heat-treatable alloys. (W 133) (1)

(Non)heat treatable alloys = Ligas tratáveis e não tratáveis termicamente


Alloy 625 coatings provided good protection from corrosion at 725°C, with the performance being comparable to wrought alloy 625, with significantly less attack of the substrate than uncoated P91. (W 56) (2)

Wrought alloy = Liga forjada


When processing titanium alloy, a significant influence of the atmosphere in the region of the process was noted. (W 162) (3)

Titanium Alloy = Liga de titânio


(1) Friction stir welding of aluminium alloysP L Threadgill1, A J Leonard2, H R Shercliff3 and P J Withers*41TWI, Granta Park, Great Abington CB21 6AL, UK2BP International, Compass Point, 79-87 Kingston Rd, Staines, Middx TW18 1DY, UK3Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ, UK4School of Materials, University of Manchester, Grosvenor Street, Manchester M1 7HS, UK*Corresponding author, email philip.withers@man.ac.uk †Other terms have been used in the literature, namely ‘shear side’ and ‘flow side’, but these are ambiguous and have been discouraged.[4].Paper presented at International Materials Reviews, vol.54. no.2. March 2009. pp. 49-93.


(2) Corrosion testing of HVOF coatings in high temperature environments for biomass applications.S Paul,* M D F Harvey .TWI, Cambridge, United Kingdom.Paper presented at ITSC 2012 International Thermal Spray Conference, Houston USA, 21-24 May 2012, and published in Journal of Thermal Spray Technology.


(3) A new method of laser beam induced surface modification using the Surfi-Sculpt® process.Paul Hilton and Lien Nguyen.Paper presented at 3rd Pacific International Conference on Applications of Lasers and Optics, PICALO, 16-18 April 2008, Beijing China, paper 201.



Adj. finite-element, fracture-mechanics, regression

Finite-element analysis (FEA) can be useful for optimising the procedure by predicting residual stresses whose magnitude may be compared to the acceptable value obtained from an ECA. (W 32) (1)

Finite-element analysis = Análise de elementos finitos


In support of understanding the mechanisms responsible for any deficiency in Miner’s rule, fracture-mechanics analysis was carried out by measuring and predicting the crack growth in specimens tested under both Constant Amplitude (CA) and Variable Amplitude (VA) loading.(W 134) (2)

Fracture-mechanics analysis = Análise de fratura-mecânica


In view of the small data set, a stepwise regression analysis was carried out, using Microsoft Excel. (W 342) (3)

Regression analysis = Análise de regressão


(1) Finite Element Prediction of the Residual Stresses in a Branch-Pipe Connection after Local Post-Weld Heat-Treatment

Philippe Bastid 

TWI Ltd, Granta Park, Great Abington, Cambridge CB21 6AL, UK

NAFEMS conference. July 2013.


(2) Investigation of fatigue damage to welded joints under variable amplitude loading spectra

Yan-Hui Zhang and S J Maddox

Structural Integrity Technology Group

TWI Limited

Granta Park

Great Abington



Paper published in International Journal of Fatigue 2008, vol. 31, Issue 1, January 2009. pp.138-152.



(3) The effect of composition on microstructural development and toughness of weld metals for advanced high temperature 9-13%Cr steels

Adrienne Barnes and David Abson

Paper published at the 2nd International Conference on Integrity of High Temperature Welds, 10 – 12 November 2003, Institute of Materials, London.



Adj. patent, remote, industrial

As of September 2007, TWI had issued 192 FSW licences to a range of organizations including end users, equipment suppliers, academia and R&Dmp;D institutes. In that time, there have been over 1800 patent applications filed. (Welding 41) (1)

Patent application = Aplicação de patente


In considering the use of novel processes for remote applications, particularly if they are to replace highly flexible manual welding techniques, the use of sensing technology and adaptive control must also be considered. (W 258) (2)

Remote application = Aplicação remota


The reliability of the process in industrial applications requires thorough evaluation. (W 149) (3)

Industrial applications = Aplicações industriais


(1) Friction stir welding patents – a stirring story

Case Study

www.twi-global.com/news-events/case-studies/friction-stir-welding-patents-a-stirring-story-002/ – 2014-05-06.


(2) Advanced joining processes for repair in nuclear power plants

Fred Delany, William Lucas, Wayne Thomas, Dave Howse, David Abson, Steve Mulligan and Colin Bird 

Paper presented at 2005 International Forum on Welding Technologies in Energy Engineering September 21 – 23 Shanghai, China.


(3) Overview of recent welding-related pipeline technology advances at TWI

Edited by Christoph Wiesner

Paper presented at International Symposium of Prof Masao Toyoda’s retirement from Osaka University: ‘From Welding and Fracture Mechanics to Pipeline Technology’ – 29 June 2008.


Adj. experimental, conservative, modelling

An experimental approach requires a set of samples with known, preferably natural, fatigue cracks. (W 234) (1)

Experimental approach = Abordagem experimental


A conservative approach is to use a high pH value towards the end of the test duration and as values were in general fairly steady at around 500 hours; this level was taken as the measure of test environment pH. (W 494) (2)

Conservative approach = Abordagem conservadora


The material models and the proposed modelling approach have been applied for simulation of vehicle impact. (W 233) (3)

Modelling approach = Abordagem modeladora


(1) Inspection reliability and periodicity for rail axle inspection

John Rudlin, Amin Muhammed and Charles Schneider

Paper published in Insight Vol,48, No.6, pp348-351, June 2006.


(2) The effect of low H2S concentrations on welded steels

R J Pargeter


Paper 143, Corrosion 2000, NACE International, Orlando, Florida, USA, 26-31 March 2000.


(3) Modelling of crashworthy welded joints of aluminium railway carbodies.

J. Davenport 1 , W. Xu 1 , M. Wilson 2 , D. Zangani 3 ,

1 TWI, Cambridge, United Kingdom;

2 Bombardier Transportation, Derby, United Kingdom;

3 D’Appolonia S.p.A., Genova, Italy

Paper presented at the 7th World Congress on Railway Research (WCRR2006), June 4-8, 2006, Montreal, Canada.


Adj. body, spot-welding, nozzle

Laser welding has “come of age” for automotive manufacture, where it is an established technique for automotive components, tailored blanks and body assembly. (W 533) (1)

Body assembly = Conjunto do corpo


Many different applications in resistance spot welding incorporate designs, which are not ideal in terms of spot- welding assembly, because they limit access and require the use of non-preferred electrode configurations. (W 380) (2)

Spot-welding assembly = Injetor de soldagem por pontos


Using a laser power of 4.8kW and an assist gas pressure of 8 bar, all tubes were cut (using the same nozzle assembly) with a single robot program. Over 50 cuts were made on tube and fixtures to dismantle this tube network in an elapsed time of 15min. (W 84) (3)

Nozzle assembly = Bico injector


(1) Industrial lasers and applications in automotive welding

S T Riches, TWI

This paper was presented on 22 October 1998 at a Make It With Lasers TM Workshop entitled Lasers in the Automotive Industry, held at Nissan Motor Manufacturing (UK) Ltd, Sunderland.


(2) A general review of recent developments in resistance welding

S A Westgate, TWI Ltd

Paper presented at 2nd International Seminar on Advances in Resistance Welding, 6-7 November 2002, Aachen, Germany.


(3) Yb-Fibre laser single sided tube cutting for nuclear decommissioning applications

Ali Khan, Paul Hilton 

Paper presented at 2010 ICALEO Proceedings Anaheim, CA, USA, 26 – 30 Sept. 2010, Paper 707.



Adj. fracture, failure, flaw

The higher Levels of residual stress treatment would normally be used with the higher fracture assessment Options, but the two are not explicitly linked. (W 15) (1)

Fracture assessment = Avaliação de fratura


Re-structuring of the fracture assessment ‘Levels’ as ‘Options’.  As part of the re-write of BS 7910, the hierarchy of fracture assessment ‘Levels’ has been tidied up and re-named ‘Options’. The resulting hierarchy is both more logical than previously and similar to the existing hierarchy of R6 and FITNET. In brief, all of the new Options use the familiar R6 concept of a Failure Assessment Diagram (FAD), with the Option 1 FAD based on the tensile properties only (yield or proof strength and UTS) of the material being assessed. (W 40) (2)

Failure assessment = Avaliação de falha


The strength of the proposed approach is that it is set within the flaw assessment framework of BS 7910. The procedure uses the existing elastic solutions for stress intensity factor to generate the Kr axis on the FAD and fracture toughness is defined in terms of J-integral. (W 59) (3)

Flaw assessment = Avaliação de defeito


(1) Effects of Mechanical Loading on Residual Stress and Fracture: Part I: Background to the BS 7910:2013 Rules

Isabel Hadley and Simon Smith 

TWI Ltd Cambridge, UK

Presented at Proceedings of the ASME 2014 Pressure Vessels & Piping Conference (PVP2014), July 20-24, 2014, Anaheim, California, USA.


(2) Overview of BS 7910:2013

Isabel Hadley* and Henryk G Pisarski* 


Paper presented at the ESIA12, 12th International Conference on Engineering Structural Integrity Assessment, 28 and 29 May 2013, Manchester, UK.


(3) Assessment of Flaws in Pipe Girth Welds

Henryk Pisarski

TWI Ltd, Great Abington, Cambridge, CB21 6AL, UK

Paper presented at the CBMM-TMS International Conference on Welding of High Strength Pipeline Steels

Araxá, Brasil

28-30 November 2011.