Adj. strain, work, precipitation

….Work has shown that strain capacity is dependent on the following factors: crack size (height and length), misalignment at the girth weld, weld metal strength overmatch, pipe wall thickness, strain hardening (defined in terms of yield to tensile ratio), uniform elongation of the pipe material, fracture toughness (in terms of a CTOD resistance curve) and internal pressure. (W 67) (1)

Strain hardening = Endurecimento por tensão


Higher values of work hardening were obtained with n = 0.10 and it was therefore considered reasonable to assume these values would correspond to an upper bound. (W 208) (2)

Work hardening = Encruamento


The second class of martensitic stainless steels (eg 13%Cr, 4%Ni steel) have low carbon contents which limit hardness and reduce the risk of hydrogen cracking. These steels can often be welded successfully with little or no pre-heat and have excellent strength and toughness after tempering, in some cases as a result of deliberate alloy additions to promote precipitation hardening. (W 552) (3)

Precipitation hardening = Endurecimento da precipitação


(1) New approaches to assuring the integrity of pipelines and risers

Geoff Booth, Henryk Pisarski, Channa Nageswaran and Peter Mudge 

TWI Ltd Cambridge, UK

Paper presented at IIW International Conference on Global Trends in Joining, Cutting and Surfacing Technology, Chennai, 17-22 July 2011.


(2) A review of the effect of cold-work on resistance to sulphide stress cracking

T Sourmail, TWI

Paper presented at Corrosion 2007, Paper 07104, March 11-15 2007 Nashville, Tennessee, USA.


(3) Developments in fusion welding of stainless steels

P Woollin

(Originally published in Welding & Metal Fabrication, 1994, Vol. 62, No. 1, January, pp 18, 20, 22, 24 & 26 

Publishers – DMG Business Media Ltd -http://www.dmgworldmedia.com/)



Adj. ship, hybrid, single

Inspection provides information of the state of a structure or equipment and is thus a vital input to this process of maintaining ships. The proposed paper presents a new method using risk based principles for planning inspection as applied to the ship hull structure. (W 93) (1)

Ship hull = Casco de navio


PMC applications for large hull structures have certain limitations in size and volume of seamless structural component without using joints. A hybrid hull that consists of both metal and composite structural members potentially enables desirable enhancements of structural efficiency, but robust joining between those heterogeneous structures must be employed. (W 123) (2)

Hybrid hull = Casco híbrido


Design for integrity – FPSOs were originally converted from single hull oil tankers, and these were fitted with external mooring systems. Over the last 20 years, the preferred design of new FPSO and other vessels has changed significantly from single hulls to double hulls. (W 318) (3)

Single hull = Casco simples


(1) Risk based optimisation of inspection planning in ships

Ujjwal Bharadwaj and John Wintle 


Paper presented at 5th International ASRANet Conference, Edinburgh, UK, 14-16 June 2010.


(2) Advanced hybrid joining technology

Vladimir M. Shkolnikov, Gabriel J. Hostetter, David K. McNamara, Joseph R. Pickens, Stanley P. Turcheck, Jr. 

Concurrent Technologies Corporation (CTC)

Johnstown, Pennsylvania 15904, U.S.A.

Bruce G. I. Dance 

Paper presented at ASME 28th International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering, OMAE 2009, Honolulu, Hawaii, 31 May – 5 June 2009. Paper #79769.


(3) FPSO Structural integrity – a TWI collection of case studies

Dr Marcos Pereira

Regional Manager, Latin America, TWI Ltd 

Julian Speck

Group Manager, Structural Integrity, TWI Ltd 

John Still, Lochead Still Associates, formally of Amerada Hess London 

Proceedings of OMAE 2004: Speciality Symposium Houston, August 30 – September 2 2004