Adj.  fibre, autogenous, diode

For this work, because of the former requirement, the need for an efficient, robust and compact laser source and the need, in remote applications, for optical fibre delivery of the laser beam power, a 5kW multimode industrial fibre laser was chosen. (W 83) (1)

Fibre laser = Laser de fibra


Based on the findings, autogenous laser and hybridlaser-MIG welding trials were performed to establish the minimum and maximum welding speeds for full penetration, with subsequent trials assessing the influence of alloy composition, surface oxide, laser spot size, welding speed and welding process…(W 172) (2)

Autogenous laser = Laser autógeno


The purchase and running costs of near infra-red (NIR) lasers, particularly diode lasers, have fallen over recent years. This, together with innovations in equipment, materials and processes, has opened up a wide range of applications to through-transmission laser welding. (W 243) (3)

Diode laser = Laser de diodo


(1) Fibre lasers for surface removal of contaminated concrete in the nuclear sector

Paul Hilton 

Paper presented at 2010 ICALEO Proceedings Anaheim, CA, USA, 26 – 30 Sept. 2010, Paper 1305.


(2) Low-porosity laser welding of 12.7mm thickness aerospace aluminium

G Verhaeghe

Paper presented at INALCO 2007, October 24-26, Tokyo, Japan


(3) Application studies using through-transmission laser welding of polymers

Marcus Warwick and Marcus Gordon 

TWI Ltd, Granta Park, Great Abington, Cambridge, CB1 6AL, UK

Paper presented at Joining Plastics 2006, London, National Physical Laboratory (NPL), 25-26 April 2006.



Adj. crack, focal, arc

The greatest deviation from the average crack length is usually the measurement closest to the outside surfaces of the specimen, furthest from the centre of the pre-crack. (W 7) (1)

Crack length = Comprimento da rachadura                                                 


The system used in this work is unusual in that its focusing lens had a long focal length of 500mm. The effect of this was to produce a very narrow beam of light, with a large depth of focus. (W 90) (2)

Focal length = Comprimento focal


The voltage was determined by the programme and for pulsed welding the setting is the voltage during the pulse, because this is used to control arc length. (W 55) (3)

Arc length = Comprimento do arco


(1) Optimisation of SENT test specimen design

Phillipa Moore 

TWI Ltd, Granta Park Great Abington, Cambridge, CB21 6AL, UK

Paper presented at Eurojoin 9. 20-22 May 2015. Bergen, Norway.


(2) The laser alternative….to nuclear decommissioning

….tube cutting and concrete scabbling using the latest technology

Paul Hilton, Ali Khan and Colin Walters

Paper published in Nuclear Engineering International, vol. 55. no. 672. July 2010.


(3) The Effect Of Metal Transfer Modes On Welding Fume Emission In MIG/MAG Welding

Eur Ing Geoff Melton 

TWI Ltd., Granta Park, Abington, Cambridge, UK.

Eighth European Conference on Joining Technology, Eurojoin 8, Pula, Croatia, 24 – 26 May 2012.




Adj. hardness, porosity, strength

The procedures gave reproducible welds of acceptable quality and satisfactory mechanical properties, although higher carbon containing steels may necessitate increased heat input to achieve acceptable hardness levels. (W 266) (1)

Hardness level = Nível de rigidez


This philosophy, of an acceptance of a certain porosity level, is commonly taken in the automotive industry, where expensive, time-consuming, and difficult to apply pre-welding aluminium cleaning treatments to reduce weld porosity levels are not the norm. (W 228) (2)

Porosity level = Nível de porosidade


The strength level is controlled by the amount of marten-site in the steel, as well as the heat treatment during processing. (W 366) (3)

Strength level = Nível de firmeza


(1) Development of Nd:Yag Laser-MAG hybrid welding of T joints for shipbuilding

C H J Gerritsen 1 , J Weldingh 2,3 , J Klæstrup Kristensen 2 

1 TWI Ltd, Granta Park, Great Abington, Cambridge CB1 6AL, UK;

2 Force Technology, Park Allé 345, 2605 Brøndby, Denmark;

3 Currently with Struers A/S, Pederstrupvej 84, 2750 Ballerup, Denmark;

Paper presented at NoLAMP 10 (10th Nordic Laser Materials Processing Conference) 17-19 August 2005 Lulea, Sweden.


(2) Hybrid Nd:YAG Laser-AC MIG welding of thin section automotive aluminium alloy

C M Allen

TWI Ltd., Granta Park, Gt. Abington, Cambridge CB1 6AL, United Kingdom.

Paper presented at Eurojoin 6, Santiago de Compostela, Spain, 28 – 30 June, 2006.


(3) Resistance spot welding of high strength steels

G Shi and S A Westgate

TWI Ltd, Granta Park, Great Abington, Cambridge, CB1 6AL, UK

Paper presented at JOM – Eleventh International Conference on the Joining of Materials, 25-28 May 2003, Helsingor, Denmark.




Adj. bond, regression, blunting

In the case of titanium alloys, as shown in Fig.5, micro-structural refinement by dynamic re-crystallisation and phase transformation takes place about the bond line in the thermo-mechanically affected zone (TMAZ), whilst the material in the heat affected zone (HAZ) is thermally affected by the process heat.(W 268) (1)

Bond line = Linha de aderência, de ligação


Figure 11 shows estimates of the 10th and 90th percentiles of the distribution of signal amplitudes about the regression line, which correspond to the threshold levels that are needed to achieve 90% POD and 10% POD, respectively. (W 149) (2)

Regression line = Linha de regressão


To determine J at initiation of ductile tearing, a blunting line was used in accordance with BS 7448 Part 4. (W 324) (3)

Blunting line = Linha embotada/de embotamento


(1) Aero engine improvements through linear friction welding

Michael E Nunn 

Paper presented at 1st International Conference on Innovation and Integration in Aerospace Sciences, 4-5 August 2005, Queen’s University Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK.


(2) Overview of recent welding-related pipeline technology advances at TWI

Edited by Christoph Wiesner

Paper presented at International Symposium of Prof Masao Toyoda’s retirement from Osaka UniversOverview of recent welding-related pipeline technology advances at TWI

Edited by Christoph Wiesner

Paper presented at International Symposium of Prof Masao Toyoda’s ity: ‘From Welding and Fracture Mechanics to Pipeline Technology’ – 29 June 2008.


(3) ADIMEW Test: Assessment of a cracked dissimilar metal weld assembly

John B Wintle, Bridget Hayes and Martin R Goldthorpe 

Paper presented at PVP 2004 ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference 25-29 July 2004, San Diego, CA., USA

Conference 25-29 July 2004, San Diego, CA., USA


Adj. fatigue, axial, cyclic

Although the fatigue loading reduced the residual stresses considerably, those remaining were still significant with respect to small stress ranges in the spectrum. (W 134) (1)

Fatigue loading = Carga de fadiga


The first pipe test (TWI 2-1) was conducted on pipe material under axial loading only. (W 31) (2)

Axial loading = Carga axial (em um eixo)


The evaluation of welding residual stresses requires an understanding of the effects of a number of parameters such as static loading, cyclic loading and crack growth. (W 65) (3)

Cyclic loading = Carga cíclica


(1) Investigation of fatigue damage to welded joints under variable amplitude loading spectra

Yan-Hui Zhang and S J Maddox

Structural Integrity Technology Group

TWI Limited

Granta Park

Great Abington



Paper published in International Journal of Fatigue 2008, vol. 31, Issue 1, January 2009. pp.138-152.


(2) Flaw Tolerance of Pipelines Containing Circumferential Flaws Subjected to Axial Straining and Internal Pressure – Tests and Analyses.

H. Pisarski, S. Smith and T. London 

TWI Ltd, 

Cambridge, UK. 

Paper presented at ISOPE Conference July 2013, Anchorage, Alaska, USA.


(3) The effects of loadings on welding residual stresses and assessment of fracture parameters in a welding residual stress field

Liwu Wei, Weijing He and Simon Smith 


Paper presented at the ASME 2011 Pressure Vessels & Piping Division Conference, Baltimore, Maryland, USA, July 17-21, 2011, PVP2011-57518.