Adj. welding, FSW, testing

Welding machines are often built for specific applications, and recently very sophisticated equipment has been manufactured for the aerospace industry. One machine is a full 6-axis machine for welding complex three dimensional structures for the Eclipse executive aircraft which is made in the USA. (W 348) (1)

Welding machine = Máquina de soldagem


Research and production FSW machines are commercially available and include installations for welding up to 16m lengths. (W 418) (2)

FSW machine = Máquina de FSW


The tests were performed in a computer-controlled testing machine that was programmed to apply the stress cycles in each block from the same basic loading spectrum in either a sequential or a random order. (W 48) (3)

Testing machine = Máquina de teste


(1) Progress in friction stir welding of aluminium and steel for marine applications

R Johnson and P L Threadgill

Paper presented at RINA Conference: Advanced Marine Materials: Technology and Applications. October 2003.


(2) Friction Stir Welding: Invention, Innovations and Industrialisation

Stephan W Kallee, E Dave Nicholas and Wayne M Thomas

E-mail: and

Paper presented at Seminar ‘Rührreibschweißen (FSW) – ein modernes Fügeverfahren’ (Friction welding – a modern joining process) at Schweißtechnische Lehr- und Versuchsanstalt (SLV) Berlin-Brandenburg, 20 March2002. German version.


(3) Fatigue testing of full-scale girth welded pipes under variable amplitude loading

Yan-Hui Zhang and Stephen J Maddox, 

TWI Limited, Cambridge, UK

Paper presented at OMAE 2012 31st Annual Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering, 1-6 July 2012, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Paper No.83054.



Adj. yield, strength, similar

Welding and joining technology is fundamental to offshore engineering. The construction of engineering facilities and pipelines requires the extensive use of welding and associated structural integrity assessments of safety critical or heavily loaded sections. Proof of integrity is based upon the externally applied loads and in service stresses as well as the welding residual stresses. The level and distribution of residual stresses arises from the complex thermo-mechanical history of heat flow and thermal expansion at very high temperatures during welding, so it has not been possible to make very accurate assessments of these in the same way that service stresses can be defined. Conservative assumptions are therefore made and this often means that the as-welded stresses are assumed to be of yield magnitude. (W 95) (1)

Yield magnitude = Magnitude de rendimento


According to the current BS 7910 approach, residual stresses can be reduced by mechanical loading only if they are initially assumed to have yield strength magnitude. (W 14) (2)

Strength magnitude = Magnitude de força


The results obtained show that the predicted residual stress values are of similar magnitude for the four patch sizes analysed. No significant difference was observed when comparing the results obtained with the 300mm circumferential and the 300mm triangular heated band. (W 14) (3)

Similar magnitude = Magnitude semelhante


(1) Intensive validation of computer prediction of welding residual stresses in a multi-pass butt weld

Weijing He, Liwu Wei and Simon Smith 

TWI Ltd, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Paper presented at 29th International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering (OMAE 2010), Shanghai, China, 6-11 June 2010.


(2) Effects of Mechanical Loading on Residual Stress and Fracture: Part II: Validation of the BS 7910:2013 Rules

Isabel Hadley and Simon Smith 

TWI Ltd Cambridge, UK

Presented at Proceedings of the ASME 2014 Pressure Vessels & Piping Conference (PVP2014), July 20-24, 2014, Anaheim, California, USA.


(3) Effects of Mechanical Loading on Residual Stress and Fracture: Part II: Validation of the BS 7910:2013 Rules

Isabel Hadley and Simon Smith 

TWI Ltd Cambridge, UK

Presented at Proceedings of the ASME 2014 Pressure Vessels & Piping Conference (PVP2014), July 20-24, 2014, Anaheim, California, USA.



Adj. parent, plasticised, base

Notches are positioned to locate the final crack tip in parent material, weld metal or heat affected zone (HAZ), as defined by the customer. (W 26) (1)

Parent material = Material de origem


When welding the more difficult and thicker materials the flow of plasticised material around the probe becomes an important consideration. (W 549) (2)

Plasticised material = Material plastificado


…The external and accessible internal weld surfaces plus ½inch (13mm) of base material on either side shall be examined. (W 45) (3)

Base material = Material base


(1) Development of a British Standard single edge notch tension (SENT) test method (BS8571)

Henryk Pisarski, Philippa Moore, Emily Hutchison 


Anthony Horn 


Paper presented at the 6th International Pipeline Technology Conference (Rudi’s Pipeline Conference), 6-9 October 2013, Ostend, Belgium.


(2) Emerging friction joining technology for stainless steel and aluminium applications 

Thomas W M and Nicholas E D

Presented at ‘Productivity beyond 2000’: IIW Asian Pacific Welding Congress, Auckland, New Zealand, February 1996



(3) Comparison between ASME and RCC-M requirements for welding and NDT. 

Marcello Consonni and Peter Mudge 

TWI Ltd.

Cambridge, UK

Paper presented at 20th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering. 30 Jul – 3 Aug 2012, Anaheim, CA, USA. Paper No. ICONE20POWER2012-54190.



Adj. failure, damage, fracture

The fracture faces of the specimens were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in order to characterise the failure mechanisms and to relate them to the hydrogen content of the weld metal and the test strain rate. (W 80) (1)

Failure mechanism = Mecanismo defeituoso


The methodology is demonstrated by considering offshore wind turbine tower as the critical component and corrosion as the damage mechanism. (W 193) (2)

Damage mechanism = Mecanismo com dano


The fracture mechanism is attributed to a hydrogen assisted mechanism, with the hydrogen stemming from the cathodic polarization of the structure for corrosion protection. The challenge is to determine the conditions which lead to catastrophic failure of a very small number of components in the field. (W 79) (3)

Fracture mechanism = Mecanismo fraturado


(1) Effect of hydrogen and strain rate on superduplex stainless steel weld metal fracture toughness and fracture morphology

A. Bourgeon1, M. Ali1 and P. Woollin1 

1TWI Ltd, Granta Park, Great Abington, Cambridge, UK

Paper presented at Duplex Stainless Steel International Conference. Beaune, France, 13-15 October 2010.


(2) A practical approach to risk based assessment and maintenance optimisation of offshore wind farms

Ujjwal R Bharadwaj 

Loughborough University

Julian B Speck and Chris J Ablitt 

TWI Ltd, Cambridge

Paper presented at 26th International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering, OMAE 2007, San Diego, California, 10-15 June 2007. Paper no. 29260.


(3) Assessment of dissimilar metal interfaces for sub-sea application under cathodic protection

M. Milititsky, M. F. Gittos, S. E. Smith and V. Marques 

Paper presented at Materials Science & Technology 2010. Houston, Texas, USA, 17-21 October 2010.



Adj. weld, parent, filler

The weld metal had a yield strength of 543MPa and UTS of 652MPa. (W 7) (1)

Weld Metal = Metal de solda


Regions of partial mixing, were observed as transitional changes from parent metal to weld metal. (W 18) (2)

Parent Metal = Metal de origem


The arc energy can be used to melt the filler metal and bridge any joint gap, whereas the laser provides the penetration. (W 189) (3)

Filler Metal = Metal de preenchimento


(1) Optimisation of SENT test specimen design

Phillipa Moore 

TWI Ltd, Granta Park Great Abington, Cambridge, CB21 6AL, UK

Paper presented at Eurojoin 9. 20-22 May 2015. Bergen, Norway.


(2) Fusion Zone Microstructure Associated With Embrittlement Of Subsea Dissimilar Joints

M. F. Dodge, H. B. Dong 

Department of Engineering, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK

M. F. Gittos, T. Mobberley 

TWI Ltd. Great Abington, Cambridge, UK

Presented at Proceedings of the 33rd International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering OMAE2014 June 8-13, 2014, San Francisco, CA, USA


(3) Laser and hybrid laser-MAG welding of steel structures for shipbuilding

Steve Shi and David Howse

Laser & Sheet Processes Group, TWI Ltd

Paper presented at 2007 International Forum on Welding Technologies in Shipping Industry held in Shanghai on 16-18 June 2007.



Adj. welding, inspection, replica

As with all friction processes FSW is a solid phase welding method which operates below the melting point of the work-piece material. (W 190) (1)

Welding method = Método de soldagem


A comparative study of the surface inspection methods was organised by Angel Trains and carried out by Engineering Link following the Rickerscote accident. (W 351) (2)

Inspection method = Método de inspeção


As will be described later, crack initiation and growth in welds were determined by a replica method. (W 114) (3)

Replica method = Método de replica


(1) Friction stir welding of aluminium ships

Fred Delany, Stephan W Kallee and Mike J Russell

TWI China, Baliqiaobei Chaoyang District, P O Box 863, 100024 Beijing, P.R. China

Tel: +86 (0)10 8570 3255,

Paper presented at 2007 International Forum on Welding Technologies in the Shipping Industry (IFWT) Held in conjunction with the Beijing Essen Welding and Cutting Fair in Shanghai, 16-19 June 2007.


(2) Review of Rail Axle Inspection Methods

J R Rudlin and R Shipp

Paper presented at International Seminar on Railway Axles, Imperial College, London, 25-26 Sept. 2003.


(3) Fatigue life prediction for toe ground welded joints

Yan-Hui Zhang and Stephen J Maddox

Structural Integrity Technology Group

TWI Limited

Granta Park

Great Abington



Paper published in International Journal of Fatigue, Vol. 31, Issue 7, July 2009, 1124-1136.


Adj. wave, failure, fracture

Utilising ultrasonic guided waves for the inspection of rails is challenging. This is mainly due to the irregular cross-sectional geometry of the rail, the existence of a large number of wave modes in the kilohertz range and the presence of a substantial dispersion effect. (W 106) (1)

Wave mode = Modo de onda


As the stress is applied, the dominant cleavage-like failure mode appears to represent a low energy crack path. In the presence of a discontinuous PMZ, or perturbation in the interface, the crack path is deflected away from the direction of applied stress. (W 39) (2)

Failure mode = Modo de falha


The post-heat parameters had a more significant effect on the fracture mode (weld plug diameter) than on the weld nugget diameter. Under constant post-heat times, the weld nugget diameter increased slightly with the increase in post-heating current, whereas a more significant increase in plug diameter was achieved (Fig.2a), indicating improved fracture mode. (W 254) (3)

Fracture mode = Modo de fratura


(1) Modelling guided waves in complex structures – Part 1: Rail

 > Technical Knowledge > Published Papers > Modelling guided waves in complex structures – Part 1: Rail


Modelling guided waves in complex structures – Part 1: Rail

Yousef Gharaibeh1,2, Chiraz Ennaceur1, Peter Mudge1, Wamadeva Balachandran2

1Long Range Ultrasonic (LRU) Section, TWI, Cambridge, UK

2School of Engineering and Design, Brunel University, Uxbridge, UK

Paper presented at NDT 2009, Blackpool, UK, 15-17 Sept. 2009.


(2) Environment-Induced Cracking In Weld Joints In Subsea Oil And Gas Systems – Part II

M. F. Dodge, H. B. Dong 

Department of Engineering University of Leicester, Leicester, UK.

M. Milititsky, R. P. Barnett, M. F. Gittos 

TWI Ltd. Great Abington, Cambridge, UK.

Presented at Proceedings of the ASME 2013 32nd International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering OMAE2013 June 9-14, 2013, Nantes, France.


(3) Techniques for improving the weldability of trip steel using resistance spot welding

G Shi and S A Westgate 

TWI Ltd, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Paper presented at 1st International Conference Super-High Strength Steels – Rome, Italy. 2-4 November 2005.