Adj. joint, narrow, root

Test welds were made along 300mm long joints, with either perfect fit-up, or with varying amounts of joint gap (0-2mm) and/or joint mismatch (0-2mm). (W 46) (1)

Joint gap = Folga conjunta


The use of a narrow gap preparation has two immediate advantages. The first is the reduction in weld metal volume and therefore welding time for the production of a weld, and the second is that the smaller volume of weld material means less distortion of the fabrication is likely to take place. (W 118) (2)

Narrow gap = Pouca folga


A U-groove with a root gap of approximately 4mm and an included angle of 50 ±10 degrees was prepared for the panel that was to be welded in air with an open root. (W 319) (3)

Root gap = Folga de origem


(1) Increasing the tolerance to fit-up gap using hybrid laser-arc welding and adaptive control of welding parameters

C M Allen, P A Hilton and J Blackburn

TWI Ltd, Granta Park, Gt. Abington, Cambridge, CB21 6AL, United Kingdom

Copyright © TWI Ltd 2012

Paper presented at 37th International MATADOR Conference, Manchester, England, 25-27 July 2012.

The original publication is available at:


(2) Performance of weldments in advanced 9%Cr steel – ‘FB2’

John Rothwell and David Abson

Paper presented at WELDS 2009: Design, testing, assessement and safety of high-temperature welded structures. Fort Myers, FL. USA. 24-26 June 2009.


(3) Demonstration of in-situ weld repair to a FPSO hull

D J Abson and H G Pisarski

Paper presented at Proceedings of OMAE-FPSO 2004, OMAE Specialty Symposium on FPSO Integrity, Houston, USA, 30 Aug – 2 Sept 2004.



Adj. power, heat, fume

In China and India, where (in the light of the rapid expansion in electric power generation in these countries) hundreds of new power plants have recently been built using creep-resistant steels… (W 22) (1)

Power generation = Geração de energia


Recently there have been excellent general reviews of FSW covering a wide range of materials by Mishra and Ma,[74] which also includes friction stir processing, and by Nandan et al.,[75] which concentrates on the heat generation, heat transfer and tool/material flow interactions of FSW. (W 133) (2)

Heat generation = Geração de calor


For cases where pipe cutting has to be performed within highly active-cells, laser cutting offers a potentially attractive solution, being ideally suited to remote deployment due to the lack of reaction force, small process head and limited fume generation. (W 89) (3)

Fume generation = Geração de fumaça


(1) Review of type IV cracking of weldments in 9– 12%Cr creep strength enhanced ferritic steels

D. J. Abson and J. S. Rothwell* 


International Materials Reviews, November 2013, 58(8), 437-473.


(2) Friction stir welding of aluminium alloys

P L Threadgill1, A J Leonard2, H R Shercliff3 and P J Withers*4

1TWI, Granta Park, Great Abington CB21 6AL, UK

2BP International, Compass Point, 79-87 Kingston Rd, Staines, Middx TW18 1DY, UK

3Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ, UK

4School of Materials, University of Manchester, Grosvenor Street, Manchester M1 7HS, UK

*Corresponding author, email 

†Other terms have been used in the literature, namely ‘shear side’ and ‘flow side’, but these are ambiguous and have been discouraged.[4]

Paper presented at International Materials Reviews, vol.54. no.2. March 2009. pp. 49-93.


(3) The potential of high power lasers in nuclear decommissioning

Paul Hilton and Colin Walters 

Paper presented at WM 2010 Conference, Phoenix, AZ. 7-11 March 2010. Paper 10092.



Adj. weld, specimen, joint

Figure 4 illustrates the cross section shape of the test component, weld geometry and position of slots. All slots are positioned on the outside surface, below the 6mm cladding which was applied after the slots were spark eroded. (W 137) (1)

Weld geometry = Geometria da solda


Tensile Tests – there are a number of tensile test specimen geometries, the most common are: parallel-sided, dumb-bell or dog-bone, and waisted. (W 3) (2)

Specimen geometry = Geometria da amostra


The results reported here were obtained from finite element models only. Experimental measurement of the residual stress after local post-well heat treatment of an identical joint geometry must be performed for validation. (W 32) (3)

Joint geometry = Geometria conjunta


(1) Evaluation of the phased array Transmit-Receive Longitudinal and Time of Flight Diffraction techniques for inspection of a dissimilar weld

Channa Nageswaran and Colin R Bird 

Paper published in Insight, vol.50. no.12. Dec. 2008. pp.678 – 684.


(2) Short-term And Long-term Mechanical Testing To Evaluate The Effect Of Flaws In Butt Fusion Joints In Polyethylene Pipes

Mike Troughton and Amir Khamsehnezhad 

TWI Ltd, Granta Park Great Abington, Cambridge, CB21 6AL, UK.

Paper presented at the ASME 2016 Pressure Vessels & Piping Division Conference, PVP2016, July 17-21, 2016, Vancouver, BC, Canada.


(3) Finite Element Prediction of the Residual Stresses in a Branch-Pipe Connection after Local Post-Weld Heat-Treatment

Philippe Bastid 

TWI Ltd, Granta Park, Great Abington, Cambridge CB21 6AL, UK.

NAFEMS conference. July 2013.



Adj. steel, material, strength

The current range of structural steel products available in Europe is reviewed, together with their material qualities and typical costs. The factors influencing choice of steel grade are discussed. The development of Charpy selection values in UK steel building and bridge codes is described and the latest rules are compared with the new European brittle fracture rules for steel structures. (W 361) (1)

Steel grade = Graduação do aço


When laser welding using a given laser power, material grade and thickness, it is generally accepted that a smaller focal spot produces better performance in terms of depth of penetration or welding speed, than a large focal spot. (W 140) (2)

Material grade = Graduação do material


The selection of strength grades is discussed in Section 2 below and impact quality requirements in Section 3. Whilst the selection of strength grade does not pose too much difficulty for structural steel designers, the selection of impact quality is often a matter of mystery. For this reason Section 3 provides a detailed insight into the development of guidance rules on this topic. (W 361) (3)

Strength grade = Graduação de firmeza


(1) Material selection requirements for civil structures

M H Ogle (1), F M Burdekin (2) and I Hadley (3)(1,3) TWI

(2) Formerly Dept of Civil and Structural Engineering, UMIST

Paper presented at Materials selection requirements for Civil Structures, 56th IIW Annual Assembly 6-11 July 2003, Bucharest, Romania.


(2) An assessment of the welding performance of high-brightness lasers and a comparison with in-vacuum electron beams

Geert Verhaeghe and Bruce Dance

Paper presented at ICALEO 2008, 27th International Congress on Applications of Lasers & Electro-Optics, Pechanga Resort & Casino Temecula, CA, USA. 20-23 October 2008. Paper no. 710.


(3) Material selection requirements for civil structures

M H Ogle (1) , F M Burdekin (2) and I Hadley (3)

(1,3) TWI

(2) Formerly Dept of Civil and Structural Engineering, UMIST

Paper presented at Materials selection requirements for Civil Structures, 56th IIW Annual Assembly 6-11 July 2003, Bucharest, Romania.