Adj. SEM, digital, golden 

An SEM image of the fracture face produced after chilling in liquid nitrogen is shown in Figure 5d, for comparison. The fracture face consists of large facets containing approximately parallel features presumably related to the austenite islands. (W 80) (1)

SEM image = Imagem SEM


By employing an optimisation strategy, the task of stress/strain measurement can be turned into a correlation search process. That is, to find a set of intrinsic parameters that, after being used to perform an affine transformation, will best recover the deformed digital image to its original one. (W 115) (2)

Digital image = Imagem digital


This presentation details the development of an in-line system employing a computer controlled high resolution camera and PCB transit system. A golden image of a ‘good’ PCB can be obtained, and subsequently an active image of a PCB being inspected can be subtracted from it. Any resulting difference can be used to pin point potential defects and used for automatic defect recognition. Ideally for good reliability of defect detection the reference positions of the reference and target images should be identical. (W 218) (3)

Golden image = Imagem dourada


(1) Effect of hydrogen and strain rate on superduplex stainless steel weld metal fracture toughness and fracture morphology

A. Bourgeon1, M. Ali1 and P. Woollin1 

1TWI Ltd, Granta Park, Great Abington, Cambridge, UK

Paper presented at Duplex Stainless Steel International Conference. Beaune, France, 13-15 October 2010.


(2) Deformation pattern based digital image correlation method and its application to residual stress measurement

Jianxin Gao* and Haixia Shang 

*Corresponding author

Paper published in Applied Optics, vol.48. issue 7, 2009. pp.1371 – 1381.


(3) Development of an automated optical imaging system for non destructive testing of printed circuit boards

P. Ian Nicholson, Jianxin Gao, and Philip Wallace 


Neil Tomlinson 

Machine Vision Products

Paper presented at BINDT 2006 Conference, 12-14 September 2006, Stratford-upon-Avon, UK.



Adj. heavy, gas, shipbuilding 

Computational weld modelling – in the fabrication of large and complex structures in heavy industries, welding-induced distortion is a major concern. It has been realized that some methods (Reference [6] , Chapters 7 and 8) developed for controlling welding-induced distortion in thin structures are not very effective for controlling welding-induced distortion in thick structures. (W 265) (1)

Heavy industry = Indústria pesada


Alnmaritec entered into talks with TWI over whether there was any room for improvement in innovative boat building. The business’s track record is distinguished having supplied to operators in the Arctic, the Antarctic and many other ocean-based businesses. Customised work boats for the oil and gas industries, fire and rescue, fishing, ferries and offshore supply vessels have all been produced and it moves into manufacture of support vessels for offshore wind tower maintenance. (Welding 532) (2)

Gas industry = Indústria de gás


This paper describes the use of high power Nd:YAG lasers for structural steel components in the yellow goods, oil and gas and shipbuilding industries, and it evaluates some of the lessons learnt and highlights areas for future development. (W 355) (3)

Shipbuilding industry = Indústria de construção naval


(1) Virtual Fabrication Technology (VFT) And Shipping

Nick Bagshaw1, Andrew Ezeilo1, Liwu Wei1, Frederick W. Brust 2  and J. C. Kennedy 2


2 Battelle, USA.

Paper presented at ICCAS 2005 23-26 August 2005, Busan, Korea.

Copyright in this paper is owned jointly by TWI Ltd and Battelle Memorial Institute, first published in 2005. Copyright in the typesetting of this paper for this proceedings is owned by ICCAS.


(2) Welding improvements for the maritime industry

Case Study – 2014-05-06.


(3) Welding of Structural Steel Components with High Power, Fibre Delivered Nd:YAG Lasers

D S Howse and C H J Gerritsen

Paper presented at 2nd International Conference on Recent Developments and Future Trends in Welding Technology, Cranfield University, UK, 3-5 September 2003.



Adj. heat, energy, power

…Laser heat input increases as speed reduces, and the values of the temperature signals from the laser heated zone increase up to values of interest for laser assisted cold spray. (W 10) (1)

Heat input = Entrada de calor


Welds were made with low and high currents with constant travel speeds so as to vary the energy input. No preheating was used in this case. Visual and magnetic particle inspection 48 hours after welding did not reveal any cracking in either weld or parent metal. (Welding 141) (2)

Energy input = Entrada de energia


It was reasoned that large oscillation amplitudes expose a considerable amount of material to the surrounding atmosphere, resulting in increased convective heat dissipation. Therefore, an increase in power input would not create the expected temperature increase. (W 75) (3)

Power input = Entrada de alimentação


(1) A Novel Coaxially Laser-Assisted (COLA) Cold Spray System

Allen C M, Marrocco T, McNutt P 

TWI Ltd., Great Abington, Cambridge, CB21 6AL, United Kingdom. 

Koivuluoto H, Latokartano J, Vuoristo P 

Tampere University of Technology, Korkeakoulunkatu 6, FI-33720 Tampere, Finland.

Olsson R 

Luleå University of Technology, SE-971 87 Luleå, Sweden.

Paper presented at ITSC 2015, 11-14 May 2015. Long Beach, CA, USA.


(2) Cracking of hardfacing alloy

Case Study – 2013-12-19.


(3) Solid state joining of metals by linear friction welding: A literature review

Imran Bhamji1,*, Michael Preuss1, Philip L. Threadgill2, Adrian C. Addison3 

1Manchester Materials Science Centre, University of Manchester, Grosvenor Street, M1 7HS.

2Formerly with TWI Ltd, Cambridge, CB21 6AL, now retired

3TWI Ltd, Cambridge, CB21 6AL

*Corresponding author. Email:

Paper published in Materials Science & Technology 2010. Vol.27. No.1. Jan 2011. pp.2-12.



Adj. ultrasonic, risk-based, magnetic-particle

Ultrasonic inspection of dissimilar joints is receiving much attention at TWI. (W 22) (1)

Ultrasonic inspection = Inspeção ultra-sônica


The second phase involves comprehensive plant-wide implementation of risk-based inspection and maintenance (RBI) planning tools. (W 100) (2)

Risk-based inspection = Inspeção baseada em risco


In one company visited by TWI, a person was found performing magnetic-particle inspection on a steel framework component for a fork lift truck. The person appeared to be using appropriate techniques but on questioning him it was found that he had been shown what to do by a colleague and did not know anything about the principles of the NDT method he was using. (W 82) (3)

Magnetic-particle inspection = Inspeção de partículas magnéticas


(1) Review of type IV cracking of weldments in 9– 12%Cr creep strength enhanced ferritic steels.

D.J. Abson and J. S. Rothwell* 


International Materials Reviews, November 2013, 58(8), 437-473.


(2) Operational excellence through an Asset Maintenance Optimisation System

Dr Brian J Cane CEng FIMMM 

Paper presented at NACE 13th Middle East Corrosion Conference, Kingdom of Bahrain, 14 – 17 February 2010.


(3) The special importance of personnel competence in welding fabrication

Importance particuliere de la competence des personnels dans la fabrication soudee

Eur Ing T. J. Jessop and Eur Ing C. J. Eady


Paper presented at European Symposium on Pressure Equipment, ESOPE 2010. Paris, 28 – 30 Sept. 2010.



Adj. pipeline, FSW, offshore

Although developed for pipeline installation, there is growing evidence that the biaxial loading experience by pipelines during operation may also exhibit similar ductile tearing resistance as the R-curve measured from SENT testing [22], making SENT specimens appropriate for analysis of pipeline operation as well. (W 24) (1)

Pipeline installation = Instalação de dutos


Another FSW machine has been installed at Sapa for the production of large panels and heavy profiles with a welding length of up to 14.5 metres. This machine has three welding heads, which means that it is possible to weld from two sides of the panel at the same time, or to use two welding heads (positioned on the same side of the panel) starting at the centre of the work-piece and welding in opposite directions. Using this method, the productivity of the FSW installation is substantially increased. (W 190) (2)

FSW installation = Instalação FSW


The paper presents an assessment of the design fatigue limits of a pressure vessel that has been in service for hydrocarbon gas separation on an offshore installation. (W 23) (3)

Offshore installation = Instalação offshore


(1) CTOD and pipelines – the past, present and future

Dr Philippa Moore and Dr Henryk Pisarski 

TWI Ltd, Cambridge, UK

Paper presented at the 6th International Pipeline Technology Conference (Rudi’s Pipeline Conference), 6-9 October 2013, Ostend, Belgium.


(2) Friction stir welding of aluminium ships

Fred Delany, Stephan W Kallee and Mike J Russell

TWI China, Baliqiaobei Chaoyang District, P O Box 863, 100024 Beijing, P.R. China

Tel: +86 (0)10 8570 3255,

Paper presented at 2007 International Forum on Welding Technologies in the Shipping Industry (IFWT) Held in conjunction with the Beijing Essen Welding and Cutting Fair in Shanghai, 16-19 June 2007.


(3) Comparison of Approaches to Design Fatigue Assessment With Reference to a Pressure Vessel Designed to an Old Standard

J B Wintle, E Soileux, E Hutchison 

TWI Ltd, 

Cambridge, UK 

Proc of European Symposium on Pressure Equipment (ESOPE) 2013, 8-10 October, Paris, France.



Adj. dissimilar, joint, substrate

A retractable, solid-state, backscatter detector facilitated the location of the dissimilar interfaces. (W 18) (1)

Dissimilar interface = Interface dissimilar


Coated devices – promise has been shown in the use of this technology to promote adhesion between a substrate and a coating. The re-entrant features provide improvements in mechanical interlocking with adjoining parts and the protrusions help to distribute the stresses more evenly across a joint interface. (W 212) (2)

Joint interface = Interface conjunta


The adhesion values measured for the HVOF sprayed stainless steel and nickel alloy coatings, following the ASTM C-633 standard, were considered good and in excess of 70MPa with failure occurring at the coating to substrate interface. (W 350) (3)

Substrate interface = Interface do substrato


(1) Fusion Zone Microstructure Associated With Embrittlement Of Subsea Dissimilar Joints

M. F. Dodge, H. B. Dong 

Department of Engineering, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK

M. F. Gittos, T. Mobberley 

TWI Ltd. Great Abington, Cambridge, UK

Presented at Proceedings of the 33rd International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering OMAE2014 June 8-13, 2014, San Francisco, CA, USA.


(2) The use of power beams in surface modification

M Tavakoli, A Buxton, I Jones and B Dance 

TWI, Cambridge, UK

Professor Mehdi Tavakoli * is a Consultant and Technology Manager, Advanced Materials and Processes Group at TWI Ltd,

Anita Buxton is Senior Project Leader, Electron Beam Processes Group

Ian Jones is Senior Project Leader

Bruce Dance is Research Metallurgist, Electron Beam Processes Group

* To whom all correspondence should be addressed.

This article was first published in Medical Device Technology, vol. 18, no. 1, January-February 2007.


(3) The use of advanced thermal spray processes for corrosion protection in marine environments

S Shrestha and A J Sturgeon

Paper presented at Eurocorr 2003 Conference, Budapest, Hungary, 28 Sept – 2 Oct 2003.

Published in: Surface Engineering Vol.20, No.4, p.237-243. August 2004.



Adj. failure, preliminary, empirical

A reliable technical failure investigation is an essential starting point for any subsequent analyses of the broader aspects of the cause of a failure, efforts to prevent recurrence and/or legal proceedings. (W 251) (1)

Failure investigation = Investigação de falha


Friction Stir Welding (FSW) can be applied to a multitude of materials of various thickness. However, the use of this technique on plastics has had very limited success due to the thermal and viscoelastic properties of these materials and, to date, no commercial applications have been reported. In this paper a preliminary investigation on a new variant of FSW, called Viblade welding, is presented. (W 202) (2)

Preliminary investigation = Investigação preliminar


Production of an array of complex features – it was envisaged that by understanding and optimising the single protrusion process through empirical investigation, then larger and more complex features could be more easily produced, through integration of single protrusions. (W 85) (3)

Empirical investigation = Investigação empírica


(1) Reliable technical failure investigation

Richard Pargeter 


Chapter from:

Pressure Systems Casebook: Causes and Avoidance of Failures and Defects John Wintle (Editor)

London, Professional Engineering Publishing, 2004.

ISBN: 1860584217.


(2) In-line reciprocating friction stir welding of plastics

A Scialpi1, M Troughton2, S Andrews2, and L A C De Filippis1

1 Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell’Ambiente e per lo Sviluppo Sostenibile (DIASS), Politecnico di Bari, Taranto, Italy

2 TWI Ltd, Cambridge, UK

Published in Joining Plastics/Fügen von Kunststoffen Magazine, Issue 1, May 2007. In German.


(3) The generation of autogeneous surface features using a low power laser beam

Jonathan Blackburn1,2, Paul Hilton1

1TWI Ltd

2Laser Processing Research Centre, The University of Manchester

Paper presented at 2010 ICALEO Proceedings Anaheim, CA, USA, 26 – 30 Sept. 2010, Paper 1704/