Adj. guided, longitudinal, shear

This paper will look into different types of application for guided ultrasonic wave technology to monitor and inspect various types of engineering assets with different geometry e.g. rails and offshore sheet pile. The functional capability of guided waves in terms of test range, defect detection capability, defect positioning and flaw sizing will be illustrated in this paper. (W 143) (1)

Guided wave = Onda guiada


The finding from experiments shows that there is a longitudinal wave mode imposed over other potential wave modes in such a complex structure, provided that the excitation is a symmetric excitation. The longitudinal wave is travelling at a speed of approximately 3440 m/s. (W 107) (2)

Longitudinal wave = Onda longitudinal


The high frequency (10MHz) phased array techniques based on the use of longitudinal and shear waves were able to detect the three flaw types studied: porosity, lack of root penetration and incomplete fusion. (W 44) (3)

Shear wave = Onda de cisalhamento


(1) Long range inspection of engineering assets using guided ultrasonic waves

Chiraz Ennaceur, Peter Mudge, Tat Hean Gan 

Paper presented at BINDT annual conference 2008, 15-18 September 2008, Macclesfield, Cheshire, UK.


(2) Modelling guided waves in complex structures – Part 2: Wire bundles – with and without insulation

Yousef Gharaibeh1, 2, Slim Soua1, Graham Edwards1, Peter Mudge1  and Wamadeva Balachandran2 

1Long Range Ultrasonic (LRU) Section, TWI, Cambridge, UK

2School of Engineering and Design, Brunel University, Uxbridge, UK

Paper presented at NDT 2009, Blackpool, UK, 15-17 Sept. 2009.


(3) Evaluation of ultrasonic phased array and laser optical techniques for inspection of the root and hot pass in girth welds

Channa Nageswaran and Ana?s Bourgeon 

TWI Ltd, Granta Park, Great Abington, Cambridge, CB21 6AL, UK

Richard Gooch 

OMS, Twyford Business Centre, London Road, Bishops Stortford, CM23 3YT, UK

Paper presented at INSIGHT 2012.



Adj. laser, specific, radiation

Development work to select the most suitable absorbers and dispensing systems has also been carried out in work at TWI and Gentex Corporation. The vast majority of near-infrared absorbers can be discounted on the grounds that they have a pronounced visual colour. Others are unstable or have low absorption at the laser wavelength. (W 345) (1)

Laser wavelength = Comprimento de onda do laser


Fibre laser technology –  fibre lasers, not to be confused with fibre-delivered lasers, where the fibre is merely an optical delivery mechanism, are solid state lasers in which an optical fibre doped with low levels of a rare earth element is the lasing medium. [1,2]Laser diodes are used to stimulate the doping atoms, an action known as pumping, forcing them to emit photons at a specific wavelength. (W 275) (2)

Specific wavelength = Comprimento de onda específico


A laser source for transmission laser welding must deliver a radiation wavelength in a range where the polymer transmits. Absorbers can then be chosen to be applied where the beam needs to be absorbed to create a weld. Typically a polymer will transmit visible and near-infrared (NIR) radiation. (W 320) (3)

Radiation wavelength = Comprimento de onda de radiação


(1) Laser welding of plastics – process selection software (601)

Ian Jones and Sam Rostami

Paper presented at ICALEO 2003 Conference, October 13-16, Jacksonville, Florida, USA.


(2) Battle of the sources – using a high-power Yb-fibre laser for welding steel and aluminium

Verhaeghe G and Hilton P

Paper presented at 58th Annual Assembly and International Conference of International Institute of Welding, 14 – 15 July 2005, Prague, Czech Republic.


(3) Process developments enabling more effective joining of medical devices – MPMD 2004, St. Paul, Minnesota

S. B. Dunkerton and S. M. Tavakoli 

TWI Ltd, Cambridge, UK

Paper presented at ASM 2004 Materials & Processes for Medical Devices Conference, St Paul’s Minnesota, August 25-27, 2004.



Adj. laser, (friction) stir, laser-arc

Laser welding can make very precise joints in plastics products, both in terms of joint location and amount of heating applied. (W 8) (1)

Laser welding = Soldadura a laser


Friction stir welding (FSW) is a joining process for metals that was invented in 1991 by Wayne Thomas at TWI. (W 35) (2)

FSW = Soldadura por fricção


In a recent project at TWI for the Ministry of Defence (MOD) to investigate the suitability of hybrid laser arc welding for ship construction, [3] the fatigue performance of these joints were of primary concern. (W 197) (3)

Laser arc welding = Solda com arco magnético


(1) Preparation and Sealing of Polymer Microchannels Using Electron Beam Lithography to Pattern Absorber for Laser Welding
Ian Jones1,* and Jonathan Griffiths2
1TWI Ltd, Granta Park, Great Abington, Cambridgeshire, CB23 6AL, UK.
2Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, 19 J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge, CB3 0HE, UK
Paper published in Mater.Trans. Vol. 56 No. 7, July 2015.


(2) Numerical investigations of friction stir welding of high temperature materials
A. Elbanhawy, E. Chevallier, K. Domin
TWI Ltd, Structural Integrity Technology Group
Presenter: Dr Amr Elbanhawy, Project Leader at TWI Ltd, Granta Park, Cambridge, CB21 6AL, UK
NAFEMS world congress, Salzburg, Austria, 9-12 June 2013.


(3) Evaluation of CrackFirst TM fatigue sensors
Yan H Zhang*, Peter J Tubby*, Chris Allen*, and Jagath Mawella**
* TWI Granta Park, Great Abington, Cambridge CB1 6AL, UK
** Defence Equipment and Support, Ministry of Defence, Abbeywood, Bristol BS34 8JH, UK
Paper presented at 2007 CF/DRDC International Defence Applications of Materials meeting, Halifax, Canada, 5-7 June 2007.



Adj. preferential, stainless-steel, hybrid

Guidelines for the prevention, control and monitoring of preferential weldment corrosion of ferritic steels in wet hydrocarbon production systems containing CO2. (W 338) (1)

Preferential weldment = Soldagem preferencial


TWI Document 5632/19/93: “Recommended practice for pitting corrosion testing of duplex stainless-steel weldments by the use of ferric chloride solution”, June 1993. (W 550) (2)

Stainless-steel weldment = Soldagem de aço inoxidável


Joint hardness – the results of hardness traverses across a hybrid weldment are summarised in table 2. (W 365) (3)

Hybrid weldment = Soldagem híbrida


(1) Corrosion fatigue performance of welded risers for deepwater applications

Paul Woollin, Richard J Pargeter and Stephen J Maddox

Paper presented at Corrosion 2004, March 28 – April 1, 2004, New Orleans, Paper no. 04144, Symposium 04-STG-32(2).


(2) Ferric Chloride testing for weld procedure qualification of duplex stainless steel weldments

P Woollin 


Published in: UK Corrosion and Eurocorr ’94. Proceedings, International Conference, Bournemouth, UK, 31 Oct.-3 Nov.1994. Publ: London SW1Y 5DB, UK; The Institute of Materials; 1994. Vol.3. pp.51-60.


(3) A new technique for girth welds in land pipelines: hybrid laser-arc welding

G S Booth, 1* D S Howse 1 and R D Howard 2 


2BP Exploration

Paper presented at Second International WLT-Conference on Lasers in Manufacturing 2003, Munich, June 2003.



Adj. filler, insulated, twin

In conventional TIG welding, the arc provides the entire energy required for heating and melting the filler wire, hence the metal deposition rate is limited by the rate at which the heating and melting process can take place. (W 81) (1)

Filler wire = Cabo alimentador


In this paper, dispersion curves has been generated for insulated wire and used to describe the modes behavior. (W 144) (2)

Insulated wire = Cabo isolado


In more recent developments, two wires were fed through one torch with a common contact tip, either with one or two power sources. This process is referred to as twin wire or double wire MIG/MAG welding. However, it was not until the process was developed with two electrically isolated contact tips in the same torch that the single torch process has become viable. (W 454) (3)

Twin wire = Cabo duplo


(1) CRA Weld Overlay – Influence of welding process and parameters on dilution and corrosion resistance

Paper presented at Stainless Steel World America 2010, Houston, Texas, USA, 5-7 October 2010.

V Kumar, C Lee, G Verhaeghe, S Raghunathan, 

TWI Limited, Granta Park, Great Abington, Cambridge CB21 6AL, United Kingdom.


(2) Modelling of guided ultrasonic waves in aircraft wiring

Yousef Gharaibeh(1,2), Slim Soua(1), Septimonette Chan(1), Tat-Hean Gan(1), and Graham Edwards(1)

(1) TWI Ltd, Granta Park, Great Abington, Cambridge CB21 6AL, UK

(2) Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex, UB8 3PH, UK

Paper presented at BINDT annual conference 2008, 15-18 September 2008, Macclesfield, Cheshire, UK.


(3) Tandem MIG welding for improved productivity

G B Melton and S J Mulligan

Presented at EUROJOIN4 – 4th European Conference on Welding, joining and cutting. Development of welding and allied processes at the beginning of the new millennium. Cavtat-Dubrovnik, Croatia, 24-26 May 2001, pp 313-318 (ISBN 953-96454-0-9).